CS 5950/6030: Computer Security and Information Assurance - Spring 2006

 

Slides and Announcements

Prof. Leszek Lilien

Department of Computer Science

Western Michigan University

© 2006 by Leszek T. Lilien

 

Class Web Pages:

Main:

      http://www.cs.wmich.edu/~llilien/teaching/spring2006/cs5950-6030/index.html

Detailed Syllabus:

      http://www.cs.wmich.edu/~llilien/teaching/spring2006/cs5950-6030/syllabus.html

Class slides and announcements (this page):

      http://www.cs.wmich.edu/~llilien/teaching/spring2006/cs5950-6030/slides.html

 

 

1/9/06:                            

Warning!

When you log into your new WMU CS Network account for the first time, the system should tell you:

Last login:  never

If you get a message showing a specific date of last login (rather than “never”), this indicates that somebody might have hijacked your account.  Please report this to Mr. John Horton (C-218, phone: 276-3106) and obtain a “clean” WMU CS Network account.

 

 

Class Slides :

Section 0: Course Introduction

0.1. Course Overview:  Syllabus  / Course Information

0.2. Survey of Students’ Background & Experience

 

 

Section 1: Introduction to Security

1.1. Examples – Security in Practice

1.2. What is „Security?”

1.3. Pillars of Security: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA)

1.4. Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Controls

--- Class 1 (M, 1/9) stopped on Slide 38: “D) Vulnerab./Threats at Other Exposure Points” ---

1.5. Attackers

1.6. How to React to an Exploit?

1.7. Methods of Defense

1.8. Principles of Computer Security

 

 

Section 2/1: Introduction to Cryptology - Part 1

2A. Terminology and Background

                2A.1. Threats to Messages

                            2A.2. Basic Terminology and Notation

--- Class 2 (W, 1/11) stopped on Slide 15: “Cryptanalysis (2)” ---

--- No class on M, 1/16 – MLK Day ---

                           

Lab and Project Information – Part 1 (incl. Projects 1 and 2) (discussed in class on W, 1/18)

 

                            2A.3. Requirements for Crypto Protocols

                            2A.4. Representing Characters

            2B. Basic Types of Ciphers

                            2B.1. Substitution Ciphers

a.        The Ceasar Cipher      

--- Class 3 (W, 1/18) stopped on Slide 30: “Caesar’s Problem” ---

                                            b. Other Substitution Ciphers

                                            c. One-Time Pads

                            2B.2. Transposition Ciphers

--- Class 4 (M, 1/23) stopped on Slide 48: “Example: Step 2” ---

                            2B.3. Product Ciphers

            2C. Making „Good” Ciphers

                            2C.1. Criteria for „Good” Ciphers

                            2C.2. Stream and Block Ciphers

                            2C.3. Cryptanalysis

                            2C.4. Symmetric and Asymm. Cryptosystems

--- Class 5 (W, 1/25) stopped on Slide 75: “Symm. and Asymm. Cryptosystems (4)” ---

            2D. The DES (Data Encryption Standard) Algorithm

                            2D.1. Background and History of DES

                            2D.2. Overview of DES

                            2D.3. Double and Triple DES

                            2D.4. Security of DES

            2E. The Clipper Story

            2F. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

                            2F.1. The AES Contest

                            2F.2. Overview of Rijndael

                            2F.3. Strength of AES

                            2F.4. Comparison of DES and AES

 

 

Section 2/2: Introduction to Cryptology - Part 2

2G. Public Key Encryption (PKE)

                                2G.1. Motivation for PKE

                                2G.2. Characteristics of PKE

--- Class 6 (M, 1/30) stopped on Slide 10: “Characteristics of PKE (2)” ---

                                2G.3. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adelman) Encryption

                2H. The Uses of Encryption

                                2H.1. Cryptographic Hash Functions

                                2H.2. Key Exchange

                                2H.3. Digital Signatures

a. Problem Definition

--- Class 7 (W, 2/1) stopped on Slide 34: “Digital Signatures (2)” ---

 

Lab and Project Information – Part 2 (Project 3 Topics) (discussed in class on M, 2/6)

Project 3 Selection Form

Link to Reports for Fall'05 Class Projects

 

b. Properties of Electronic Signatures

c. Using PKE for Digital Signatures

d. Using Hash Fcns for Digital Signatures

2H.4. Certificates

a. Introduction

--- Class 8 (M, 2/6) stopped on Slide 45: “Certificates (4)—Introduction (3)” ---

b. Trust Through a Common Respected Individual

c. Certificates for Identity Authentication

d. Trust Without a Single Hierarchy

 

Section 3: Program Security

3.1. Secure Programs – Defining & Testing

a. Introduction

--- Class 9 (W, 2/8) stopped on Slide 9: “Introduction (2)” ---

b. Judging S/w Security by Fixing Faults

c. Judging S/w Security by Testing Pgm Behavior

d. Judging S/w Security by Pgm Security Analysis

e. Types of Pgm Flaws

            3.2. Nonmalicious Program Errors

                            a. Buffer overflows                             

                            b. Incomplete mediation

                            c. Time-of-check to time-of-use errors

                            d.Combinations of nonmalicious program flaws

            3.3. Malicious Code

                            3.3.1. General-Purpose Malicious Code incl. Viruses

                                            a. Introduction

                                            b. Kinds of Malicious Code

                                            c. How Viruses Work

                                            d. Virus Signatures

--- Class 10 (M, 2/13) stopped on Slide 46: “Virus Signatures (1)” ---

                                            e. Preventing Virus Infections

                                            f.  Seven Truths About Viruses

                                            g. Case Studies

                                            h. Virus Removal and System Recovery After Infection

                             3.3.2. Targeted Malicious Code

                                            a. Trapdoors

                                            b. Salami attack

                                            c. Covert channels

--- Class 11 (W, 2/15) stopped on Slide 73: “v. Identifying Potential

                                                                                                 Covert Channels (1)” ---

            3.4. Controls for Security

                            a. Introduction

                            b. Developmental controls for security

                            c. Operating System controls for security

                            d. Administratrive controls for security

                            e. Conclusions

 

Section 4: Protection in General-Purpose Operating Systems

            4.1. Protected Objects, Methods, and Levels of Protection

a.  History of protection in OSs

b. Protected objects in OSs

c.  Security methods in OSs

d. Levels of protection in OSs

--- Class 12 (M, 2/20) stopped on Slide 13: “Levels of protection in OSs (2)” ---

e.  Three dimensions of protection in OSs

f.   Granularity of data protection

 

Midterm Exam Topics (Midterm scheduled for W, 3/8)

 

Links to example midterm exams (from Fall’05): version1 and version2 (for even/odd seats, respectively)

                Note: For Spring’06, the topics required for the Midterm stop at Section 4.1.f (above).

            4.2. Memory and Address Protection

a.  Fence

b. Relocation

c.  Base/Bounds Registers

d. Tagged Architecture

e.  Segmentation

f.   Paging

g. Combined Paging with Segmentation

            4.3. Control of Access to General Objects

a.  Introduction to access control for general objects

b. Directory-like mechanism for access control

c.  Acces control lists

d. Access control matrices

e.  Capabilities for access control

f.   Procedure-oriented access control

g. Conclusions

            4.4. File Protection Mechanisms

--- Class 13 (W, 2/22) stopped on Slide 44: “4.4. File Protection Mechanisms” ---

--- No classes on M, 2/27 and W, 3/1 (Spring break) ---

a.  Basic forms of protection

b. Single file permissions

c.  Per-object and per-user protection

            4.5. User Authentication

a.  Introduction

b. Use of passwords

c.  Attacks on passwords

i.         Try all possible pwds (exhaustive, brute force attack)

ii.       Try many probable pwds

iii.      Try likely pwds

iv.      Search system list of pwds

--- Class 14 (M, 3/6) stopped on Slide 79: “Search system list of pwds (9)” ---

v.       Exploiting indiscreet users (social engg)

d. Password selection criteria

e.  One-time passwords (challenge-response systems)

Midterm AND very short lecture

--- Class 15 (W, 3/8) stopped on Slide 98: “OPTIONAL – One-time passwords (12)” ---

Links to our midterm exam “master” copies: master-version1 and master-version2 .

f.   The authentication process

g. Authentication other than passwords

h. Conclusions

            4.6. Summary

--- Class 16 (M, 3/13) stopped on Slide 103: “h. Conclusions” ---

 

Section 7/1: Security in Networks - Part 1

            7.1. Network Concepts

a)       Introduction

b)       The network

c)       Media

d)       Protocols (incl. OSI and TP/ICP)

e)       Types of networks

f)        Topologies

g)       Distributed systems

h)       APIs

i)         Advantages of computing networks

7.2. Threats in Networks

a)       Introduction

b)       Network vulnerabilities

c)       Who attacks networks?

d)       Threat precursors

d-1) Port scan

d-2) Social engineering

d-3) Reconnaissance

d-4) OS and application fingerprinting

d-5) Using bulletin boards and chats

d-6) Getting available documentation

e)       Threats in transit: eavesdropping and wiretapping

--- Class 17—Ms. Zille Huma Kamal (W, 3/15) stopped on Slide 59: “Threats in transit: eavesdropping and wiretapping (5)” ---

--- No class on M, 3/20

f)        Protocol flaws

g)       Types of attacks

g-1) Impersonation

g-2) Spoofing

g-3) Message confidentiality threats

g-4) Message integrity threats

g-5) Web site attacks

--- Class 18 (W, 3/22) stopped on Slide 81: “Web site attacks (5)” ---

g-6) Denial of service

g-7) Distributed denial of service

g-8) Threats to active or mobile code

--- Class 19 (M, 3/27) stopped on Slide 108: “Threats to active or mobile code (14)” ---

g-9) Scripted and complex attacks

h)    Summary of network vulnerabilities

 

Section 7/2: Security in Networks - Part 2

            7.3. Network Security Controls

a)       Introduction

b)       Security threat analysis

c)       Impact of network architecture/design and implementation on security

1)       Segmentation

2)       Redundancy

--- Class 20 (W, 3/29) stopped on Slide 14: “Impact of network architecture/design & implement. on security (4)” ---

3)       Single points of failure

4)       Other means

d)       Encryption

1)       Link encryption vs. end-to-end (e2e) encryption

2)       Virtual private network (VPN)

3)       PKI and certificates

4)       SSH protocol

5)       SSL protocol (a.k.a. TLS protocol)

6)       IPsec protocol suite

7)       Signed code

8)       Encrypted e-mail

e)       Message content integrity controls

1)       Error correcting codes

2)       Cryptographic checksum

f)        Strong authentication

1)       One-time passwords

2)       Challenge-response systems

3)       Digital distributed authentication

4)       Kerberos authentication system

--- Class 21 (M, 4/3) stopped on Slide 59: “Kerberos authentication system (3)” ---

g)       Access controls

1)       ACLs on routers

2)       Firewalls

h)       Intrusion detection systems: alarms and alerts

i)         Honeypots

j)         Traffic flow security

k)       Review of network security controls

            7.4. Network Security Tools

7.4.1.           Firewalls

a)       Introduction

b)       What is a firewall

c)       Firewall design

d)       Types of firewalls

--- Class 22 (W, 4/5) stopped on Slide 86: “--[OPT.]-- Types of firewalls (3)” ---

                i. Packet filters

(i-1) Simple packet filters

(i-2) Stateful packet filters

                ii. Application proxies

(ii-1) Guards      (“top model” subcategory)

                iii. Personal firewalls

e)       Comparison of firewall types

f)        Example firewall configurations

g)       What firewalls can—and can’t—block

7.4.2.           Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs)

a)       Introduction

b)       Types of IDSs

                                                                           i.      Signature-based IDSs

                                                                          ii.      Anomaly-based IDSs

                                                                        iii.      Other IDSs

c)       Goals for IDSs

d)       IDS strengths and limitations

7.4.3.           Secure E-Mail

a)       Introduction

b)       Introduction

c)       Security for e-mail

d)       Design of PEM (Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail)

e)       Example secure e-mail systems

                                                                           i.      PGP

                                                                          ii.      S/MIME

--- Class 23 (M, 4/10) stopped at the end of Section 7  ---

 

*** UPDATED ***  Section 6: Database Security

            6.1. Introduction  - a database (DB) refresher –

            6.2. Security Requirements

a) Physical database integrity requirements

b) Logical database integrity requirements

c) Element integrity requirements

d) Auditability requirements

e) Access control requirements

f) User authentication requirements

g) Availability requirements

            6.3. Reliability and Integrity

            6.4. Sensitive Data

            6.5. Inference (Inference Problems)

Direct attacks / Indirect attacks

Inferences in statistical DBs (incl. small/large query set attacks, tracker attacks, query overlap attacks, insertion/deletion attacks)

Inferences in general-purpose DBs (incl. inferences via queries based on sensitive data, inferences via DB constraints, inferences via updates)

            6.6. Multilevel Databases

                        (incl. Polyinstantiation)

            6.7. Proposals for Multilevel Security

--- Class 24 (W, 4/12) stopped at the end of Section 6  ---

 

Lab and Project Information – Part 3 (Requirements for Term Project Presentation and Final Report)

 

*** UPDATED ***  Section 9: Legal, Privacy, and Ethical Issues in Computer Security

            9.1. Basic Legal Issues

a) Protecting Programs and Data

b) Information and the Law

c) Ownership Rights of Employees and Employers

d) Software Failures (and Customers)

9.2. Computer Crime

9.3. Privacy

9.4. Ethics

a) Introduction to Ethics

b) Case Studies of Ethics

c) Codes of Professional Ethics

 

Project presentations (see Lab and Project Information – Part 3 above for more details)

Part 1)     M, 4/17/06:   Presentations by Groups P1, P3, P5, P8

--- Class 25 (M, 4/17) stopped at the end of Section 9, and after project presentation by group P8 ---

 

 

Final Exam Topics (Final Exam scheduled for 7:15 PM on Monday, 3/24)

 

Links to example final exams (from Fall’05): version1 and version2 (for even/odd seats, respectively)

Note:  For Spring’06, the topics required for the Final Exam start at Section 4.2 (Memory and Address Protection).

 

 

 

Fall 2006 — CS 6910: Advanced Computer and Information Security

I will teach this advanced course for graduate students only.  I invite you and your friends (I hope you can tell them!) to take it.

Day and time: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 6:00 - 7:15 PM

The prerequisite will be CS 5950/6030: Network Security or CS 5950/6030: Computer Security and Information Assurance.

The course will be research-oriented, with both “more theoretical” and “more practical” research projects in the areas of computer privacy and security. Topics will be proposed by me, or proposed by students and accepted by me.

I will introduce selected areas of advanced research in computer privacy and security, the ones which are of most interesting to me. Examples include:

·         Privacy-preserving data dissemination.

·         Trust in open computing environments, incl. using trust for authorization.

·         Privacy and security in pervasive systems, including opportunistic networks and other ad hoc networks, as well as embedded networks and sensor networks.

·         Authentication and privacy, with emphasis on authentication in healthcare systems.

·         Project Authentic: Authentication Attacks and Controls.

·         Analysis of computer privacy and security paradigms and development of new ones.

·         Modeling computer fraud and investigating types of fraudulent user behaviors.

·         Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment/avoidance in computer systems, esp. in database systems

Requirements for students include:

·         Read and present in class the research papers selected by me, or selected by students and accepted by me. Research areas represented by the papers will be (mostly) from the “selected areas” listed above.

·         Work on own research projects, either individual or group ones. Projects will mostly belong to the “selected areas” listed above. They will be developed under my close supervision, including regular weekly meetings.

·         Present the project in class (hopefully at least one presentation, lasting at least 30 min. + 5 min Q&A period).

·         Write a research paper summarizing the project work. The goal is to produce papers of the quality sufficient for submission to research conferences.

We will probably have no exams, or only take-home exams.

 

Part 2)     W, 4/19/05:   Presentations by Groups P4, P6, P7, P9, P12